Edge grain construction is when the counters width is made up of 1-3/4 inch wide laminated strips. Many people also call this type of construction butcher block. The wood, in this case, has been rotated to a vertical position making the grain structure different than a plank style top. It produces a more linear look. Like plank style construction the wood slats are the entire length of the countertop.
Upsides to edge grain construction
It has a harder work surface than the plank style top because the grain structure is tighter. This makes for a great cutting surface and food prep area.
Thickness is not dictated by the available thickness of the available lumber. We can make tops from 1 1/4 inch thick up to 5 1/2 inch thick.
Downsides to edge grain construction
It is more expensive than a plank style top because more scrap is produced in the making of it and there is more labor involved.